The power grid system is a vast network that consists of three major sections. The first one is the generation system where energy is created—typically by electromechanical or thermoelectric conversion. The most common generation sources are oil, natural gas, nuclear, hydroelectric, solar, wind, biomass, and geothermal.
The second section is the transmission system over which power is transferred from a generation point to a distribution point. The most common methods are via AC and DC cables, flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS), and pipelines.
Finally, the third section is referred to as the distribution system where power is converted to a usable level and delivered for residential, commercial, and industrial use. It usually consists of multiple voltage levels to accommodate varying user requirements.
All of these systems are equally important; however, the distribution system ensures that the grid system meets the energy requirements of its users. Accordingly, understanding industrial power distribution needs and environmental hazards can help you define PCB layout guidelines for power supply applications to meet these requirements.
Industrial Power Supply Distribution
Industrial facilities use large amounts of energy at various voltage levels. This necessitates that most factories have an internal power system consisting of an external generation, extensive transmission, or wiring network in addition to an industrial power supply main distribution center. The latter supplies power to all electrical and electronic systems within the facility through industrial boards that regulate power distribution.
Industrial power distribution system
As shown above, industrial power distribution systems typically supply multiple types of electrical systems. These include:
Factory Power Supply Applications
- Computing and peripherals
- Production equipment
- HVAC systems
These applications usually require power at various voltage levels. Industrial power system PCBAs are primary elements that enable this diverse distribution. And they may be subject to various high voltage and environmental hazards.
HV and Environmental Hazards for Industrial PCBAs
- High voltage tracking and arcing
- Mechanical shock
- Extreme temperature
- Fluids and moisture
Building industrial boards that simultaneously meet energy demands and mitigate hazards requires specific PCBA layout guidelines for power supply applications to be instituted into your design.
PCBA Manufacturing for Extreme Environments - Part 1
Industrial Power PCBA Layout Guidelines
There are several types of linear and switch-mode power supply boards that are used for industrial applications, including the following:
Power Supplies Used in Industrial Applications (Max Voltage)
- Full Bridge (5000V)
- Boost (5000V)
- Half Bridge (2000V)
- Buck (1000V)
- Push-Pull (1000V)
The list above is not exhaustive and only lists HV power supplies that operate at voltages ≥ 1000V. When designing boards for industrial production facility usage, it is necessary to follow a particular set of guidelines, such as those listed below.
Optimal PCBA Layout Guidelines for Industrial Environments
- ☐ Choose temperature-resilient materials
- ☐ Use consistent copper weights
- ☐ Use a symmetric stackup
- ☐ Maximize thermal distribution and dissipation
- ☐ Use board protection methods
- ☐ Make sure your design adheres to regulatory standards
|Tempo's Custom PCB Manufacturing Service
To optimize the effectiveness of instituting the layout guidelines above, work closely with your contact manufacturer (CM) to ensure that your design leverages DFM PCB tolerances for the most efficient and cost-effective development process. Tempo Automation not only leads the industry in fast, high-quality board building, but is also dedicated to ensuring that you have the best user experience.
Tempo employs a white-box turnkey PCBA manufacturing process that promotes collaboration and transparency between engineers and CMs. This allows us to quickly deliver high-quality boards for both standard and non-standard designs that meet energy industry criteria for prototyping and on-demand production. We also provide downloadable DRC files in Altium Designer, Cadence Allegro, Mentor Pads, other CAD formats, and Excel.
If you are ready to have your design manufactured, try our quote tool to upload your CAD and BOM files. If you want more information on CAD files or how to incorporate your design into a CAD format, contact us.